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 Post subject: Teaching the game of Go.
Post #1 Posted: Fri Jul 17, 2015 12:32 am 
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Since taking up the game of Go, I have taught it to countless others who have been willing to learn. Every time I present the game to someone, I think of a better way to explain it or demonstrate something. The following is where I’m at now in my presentation of the game of Go to a brand new player. The idea is for it to be as strait forward and simple as possible and go into strategy very little at first. I don’t say the following verbatim but pretty close. Also, I start people out on a 13x13.

The game is called Go. It comes from the Japanese word Igo which means “the surrounding game.” So the fundamental idea of the game is to surround your opponent as well as surrounding areas of the board.

The way it works is that both players take turns consecutively placing one stone at a time on the board. Black goes first and the stones are to be placed on the intersections where the lines meet, not inside the squares. Every intersection on the board is equal and at the start, you may play any one of them. The start points are only there to help you visually navigate the board, they’re not special though.
The game has three basic rules that govern play; all three being different types of rules.

The first rule is called the rule of “liberties” which determines where you may place your stones.

[I place a black stone somewhere in the middle of the board]

Click Here To Show Diagram Code
[go]$$ ---------------------------------------
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . , . . . . . , . . . . . , . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
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$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . , . . . . . X . . . . . , . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . , . . . . . , . . . . . , . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ ---------------------------------------[/go]


The rule of liberties states that every stone, in order to be placed on the board, and in order to remain on the board, has to at all times enjoy at least one vacant liberty. A stone’s liberties are the intersections directly adjacent to it (not the diagonals).

[I then Atari the black stone]
Click Here To Show Diagram Code
[go]$$c
$$ ---------------------------------------
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . , . . . . . , . . . . . , . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . O . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . , . . . . . X O . . . . , . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . O . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . , . . . . . , . . . . . , . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ ---------------------------------------[/go]

If your opponent takes up all of your liberties that you have except for one, then you say that that stone is in “Atari.”
If your opponent takes up your last liberty then the stone gets captured and goes back in the bowl.

If you don’t want the black stone to be captured than you can extend it. Now these stones are treated as one single entity and therefore share liberties. These stones together have six liberties total, three of which are already taken by white and so your opponent must take up all six in order to capture. If your opponent does this then he captures both stones (or however many are surrounded).
Click Here To Show Diagram Code
[go]$$c
$$ ---------------------------------------
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . , . . . . . , . . . . . , . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . O . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . , . . . . X X O . . . . , . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . O . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . , . . . . . , . . . . . , . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ ---------------------------------------[/go]


Note that this stone is surrounded but remains on the board because it still enjoys a vacant liberty.

Click Here To Show Diagram Code
[go]$$c
$$ ---------------------------------------
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . , . . . . . , . . . . . , . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . O O . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . , . . . O . X O . . . . , . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . O O . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . , . . . . . , . . . . . , . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ ---------------------------------------[/go]


[I then play a quick game of first capture-go with the student]

The second rule is called the rule of control which determines how you win the game.

[I lay out the following example]
Click Here To Show Diagram Code
[go]$$c
$$ ---------------------------------------
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . , . . . . . , . . . . . , . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . , . . . . . , . . . . . , . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | X X X , . . . . . , . . . . . , . . . |
$$ | . . . X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . X . X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ ---------------------------------------[/go]



You won’t understand it right now but know that there are certain formations that you can make with your stones that make them impossible to capture. This is one such formation. When a group of stones is unable to be captured, it is said to be a “living group”. When you have living stones that surround in area, they are said to control this area. To control an intersection means that you either have a living stone there OR you may play a living stone there but your opponent cannot. If your opponent plays a stone in your area of control then that stone would not be able to avoid being eventually captured. When a stone can’t avoid capture, it is said to be a dead stone or group. In order to win the game, you need to control more than half of the board, or rather more of the board than your opponent. So, there are 361 intersections on the board; you need to have control of 181 of them to win the game (komi comes later).
The third rule is called the rule of ko which guarantees that the game remain finite and have a definite end. However, I will wait to demonstrate this when it becomes relevant in our game.

[Once it appears in a game]

The rule of ko states that never at any time in the game is either player allowed to play a move that would repeat a board position that had been previously seen in the game. This means that you cannot immediately take back the stone which was just captured. Instead you have to play somewhere else on the board and if your opponent doesn’t fill the ko, then you may recapture. If you’re smart and you really want the ko in your favor, then look for a move somewhere that if your opponent doesn’t respond, it will cost more than losing the ko. That way he’ll have to respond to your move and you can then retake the ko. This move is called a “ko threat”.

Click Here To Show Diagram Code
[go]$$c
$$ ---------------------------------------
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . , . . . . . , . . . . . , . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . X . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . , . . . . X , X . . . . , . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . X . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . , . . . . . , . . . . . , . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | X . . . . . . . . X . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . X . . . . . . X . X . . . . . . . . |
$$ ---------------------------------------[/go]


Those are the rules that govern the game. Now I’ll show you the most basic strategy to get started. You see these stones? How many stones are they’re in the corner? How many are there on the side? And how many are in the center? But yet, all three groups control only one point of territory. This analogy demonstrates that it is most efficient to make territory in the corners, then on the sides and lastly in the middle. This being said, most games will tend to start the same way: One player will choose a corner (usually the top right), the next player will choose another corner, the first player will take the third corner and the second player will take the fourth. At this point the game can then go in endless different directions but the general idea is to establish the corners, proceed down the sides and finish in the center (but this is very much open to variation.)

So what do you think?

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 Post subject: Re: Teaching the game of Go.
Post #2 Posted: Fri Jul 17, 2015 3:52 am 
Oza

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I think that is a very good approach, very similar to the way I used to do it. Only difference is that I start on a 9x9 board.

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Post #3 Posted: Fri Jul 17, 2015 3:59 am 
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Hi Joelnelsonb,
I like it.

How do you explain the counting ?
Do you talk about eyes ?

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Post #4 Posted: Fri Jul 17, 2015 5:13 am 
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I like the idea of simply explaining the rule of capture, then maybe practice capture go and finally go on to explain that in "real go" whoever has most stones on the board at the end of the game wins.
small boards clearly preferred (even 9x9 can seem daunting to a beginner)

Ko rule can be explained as it comes up.


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Post #5 Posted: Fri Jul 17, 2015 5:45 am 
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I find that beginners often get too concerned with capturing stones if one first explains the capture rule. That's why when I teach people new to the game I say Go is a surrounding game and first show surrounding say six points of territory in a corner, and then say you also try to surround your opponent and show the capture rule (with one then two stones as you do). I dislike capture Go for this reason (setting bad habits from the start, capture obsessed beginners often unnecessarily take a stone in a net or similar off the board rather than playing much bigger moves in open spaces) and find most people I teach pick up the capture rule pretty quickly. For young children or others who struggle to understand it though I might use it.

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Post #6 Posted: Fri Jul 17, 2015 7:51 am 
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DrStraw wrote:
I think that is a very good approach, very similar to the way I used to do it. Only difference is that I start on a 9x9 board.


Very similar to how I used to do it, but I started on a 3x3 board. ;)

Some thoughts:

There are things you mention, but do not show. You could do that.

It is important, we have learned, to get across the idea of dead stones. That did not much matter when beginners played experienced players, who could point out dead stones and explain why they were dead. But these days beginners play beginners, and whether stones are dead or not can become a big question.

Related to that is teaching how the game ends -- and I don't mean by two passes. Beginners often do not know when the game is over. Teaching area rules is good for this, because you can start with having no dead stones on the board at the end of play. You can even start by playing to the bitter end, when at least one player does not have a play. That is one reason for starting out on small boards. ;) Then you can point out that the players can agree to end play at an earlier stage, remove dead stones and count areas. :)

BTW, teaching beginners from the start to fill all the dame is good, because they need to learn about protective plays and how to take advantage if the opponent fails to protect.

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Post #7 Posted: Fri Jul 17, 2015 8:23 am 
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You are correct, Bill. I should mention that when the game reaches the end, I explain that there are no productive moves left for either side and (after filling dame), I explain that you may also pass your turn at any time instead of placing a stone and that now would be an appropriate time.

If I feel that the beginner is coming along quickly and not having trouble then I'll explain the concept of two eyes and one eye using an example from our game.

I also forgot to mention that in explaining the rule of ko, I explain the idea that you can place a stone somewhere without a liberty if on the move that you place it, you capture at least one stone, giving your stone a liberty.

Uberdude: I do heavily encourage the student not to emphasize capturing and explain that my games often will come to completion without a single capture.

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Post #8 Posted: Mon Jul 20, 2015 8:33 am 
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Explaining clearly how to end the game seems to be one of the most difficult aspects of the game. Because it requires an understanding of surrounding empty territory (or area), along with a rudimentary understanding of life and death. The latter being one of the more difficult for first time beginners. The basic concepts of each are so intertwined. But the goal is more territory/area than your opponent, not simply make sure you have two eyes.

I've begun to move away from using Capture Go to teach beginner, though I still believe it has value, and will go back to it for some beginners who are having trouble grasping certain concepts. I never like two beginners play each other with Capture Go, because I don't feel they will learn the intended concepts on their own and they do indeed tend focus too much on capturing (without teacher intervention).

When I do use it, I usually start on a small 5x5 board, or start with a cross cut setup in the center of a 9x9. I tell my opponent not to try and capture me, because they won't be able to (I've had to eat my words a time or two, because I'm still not quite strong enough to back up that claim). I tell them to try and not get captured.

(In my opinion) The intended goals for using Capture Go are:
    1) learn to defend before attacking
    2) learn to make uncapturable shapes (at least start to think along these lines)
    3) learn how to end the game: the one with the most territory wins (when no one is captured, count to see who has surrounded the most open area)

These concepts can be, and have been for centuries, taught on a full sized board with regular Go. But you can get past these initial hurdles much faster on a smaller board, and the concepts are easily transferable to the larger game.

And because ending the game seems to be the most difficult to explain, I like to get to #3 as quickly as I can with a first time beginner. Everything else stems from these concepts. No need to over explain, because the rest can be self-discovered.

Even without using Capture Go, I also try to avoid over explaining capturing (because beginners do like to focus on capturing, for some reason). I try to use "suffocate" rather than "surround to kill/capture". The word surround can be too ambiguous, since its possible to surround a living group and not kill it.

But I'd rather my students focus on surrounding open territory instead of surrounding and killing enemy stones. Build a bigger house.

I try to explain that the initial moves are fence posts, and eventually we'll try to connect them together to surround and control more open range land than our opponents. The game ends when I can't make my territory and larger, or yours any smaller, or there are no more weaknesses to exploit or protect.

I love the way Karl Baker describes how to end the game in his book, The Way to Go.
[quote=Karl Baker]
Ending The Game
There is one main goal in go: control more of the points on the board. This is done by (1) increasing your area, (2) reducing your opponent’s area, (3) capturing enemy stones, and (4) protecting your own stones. The winner, on balance, has always accomplished these objectives more efficiently than the loser.[/quote]

I don't believe passing was ever an official rule of the game. Its just a way to say, "I think we are done." The game is ended by mutual agreement (passing) -- that the final outcome of the game will not change with further play. We've kinda had to formalize it for amateur play.


I believe in the concept of "never answer a question that hasn't been asked", when teaching the game. So I rarely talk about two-eyes, or ko, or life and death. These can all be self-discovered as a natural concept of suffocation -- maintaining liberties for your stones/groups. I do talk about liberties, breaths, breathing straws. When they can't breath, they suffocate and die. Suicide is easy to explain, but unfortunately, its just as easy to confuse with taking an opponent's last liberty. And the first time they take a ko illegally, I just keep taking it back again until they see the futility of it, then explain the rule.

But ko is so much bigger than "you must play somewhere else first". That just cheapens it. It has a much deeper strategy than beginners are usually ready for. Its more about offering a trade for something you might deem more valuable. "I'll give you that, if you'll give me this". (and one of you gets two moves in a row elsewhere). That's why I'm in no hurry to explain it to beginners. I don't want to stunt their understanding of it. Setting up a decent example is not easy.

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Post #9 Posted: Mon Jul 20, 2015 8:42 am 
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Overall I think you have a good approach. I always add in this example when I explain capturing:

Click Here To Show Diagram Code
[go]$$B
$$ +-------------------+
$$ | . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . , . . . O O O |
$$ | . . . . . . O X X |
$$ | . . . . , . O X . |
$$ | . . . . . . O O X |
$$ | . . , . . . X X X |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . |
$$ +-------------------+[/go]


Because in my experience it's common for beginners to assume they can't capture these black stones. I usually explain it as "check captures before suicide".

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Post #10 Posted: Mon Jul 20, 2015 9:06 am 
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Hi

This is mine: http://senseis.xmp.net/?DieterVerhofsta ... troduction

Dieter

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Post #11 Posted: Fri Jul 24, 2015 9:51 pm 
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emeraldemon wrote:
Overall I think you have a good approach. I always add in this example when I explain capturing:

Click Here To Show Diagram Code
[go]$$B
$$ +-------------------+
$$ | . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . , . . . O O O |
$$ | . . . . . . O X X |
$$ | . . . . , . O X . |
$$ | . . . . . . O O X |
$$ | . . , . . . X X X |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | . . . . . . . . . |
$$ +-------------------+[/go]


Because in my experience it's common for beginners to assume they can't capture these black stones. I usually explain it as "check captures before suicide".


A good way to explain this is to say that after every turn, you clear any stones that don't have a liberty starting with the stones of the opponent of the person who just played.

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Post #12 Posted: Sat Aug 15, 2015 8:43 pm 
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Breathing straws I like it..... And I agree do not answer questions that have not been asked....



xed_over wrote:

I believe in the concept of "never answer a question that hasn't been asked", when teaching the game. So I rarely talk about two-eyes, or ko, or life and death. These can all be self-discovered as a natural concept of suffocation -- maintaining liberties for your stones/groups. I do talk about liberties, breaths, breathing straws. When they can't breath, they suffocate and die. Suicide is easy to explain, but unfortunately, its just as easy to confuse with taking an opponent's last liberty. And the first time they take a ko illegally, I just keep taking it back again until they see the futility of it, then explain the rule.

But ko is so much bigger than "you must play somewhere else first". That just cheapens it. It has a much deeper strategy than beginners are usually ready for. Its more about offering a trade for something you might deem more valuable. "I'll give you that, if you'll give me this". (and one of you gets two moves in a row elsewhere). That's why I'm in no hurry to explain it to beginners. I don't want to stunt their understanding of it. Setting up a decent example is not easy.

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Walla Walla GO Club -(on FB)

We play because we enjoy the beauty of the game, the snap and feel of real stones, and meeting interesting people. Hope to see ya there! お願いします!

Anthony

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